What are the three major misunderstandings we have to know about exterior thermal insulation and fire prevention
1. Classification and regulation in strict accordance with European and American norms
According to the expert, it is also ambitious to strictly select European and American grading standards and related regulations, but the actual situation in China is not allowed. The expert pointed out that the research on external wall insulation in developed countries such as Europe and the United States has lasted nearly half a century. A lot of work has been done in the aspects of fundamental theory, experimental research, comparison between laboratory test objectives and practical engineering application, which has laid a good foundation. From their starting point, the key points are people-oriented and safety first. The guiding ideology is that we should earnestly study and draw lessons from it. Therefore, if we can choose it directly, we are quite ambitious, but it is necessary to consider the current situation of our country. At present, many wall insulation materials in our country choose organic flammable insulation materials (EPS, XPS, PU, etc.). There is a great lack of non-flammable insulation materials such as mineral (rock) cotton boards with good quality. Because most of our country's construction is middle and high-rise, if they are fully implemented in accordance with the norms of European and American countries, the organic insulation materials will be restricted below 22 meters, then they are organic. Thermal insulation materials will be excessive and non-combustible materials will be inadequate, which will seriously affect the development of energy-saving construction in China.
2. To deal with the hidden fire hazards in the construction stage, we can deal with the problem of external thermal insulation and fire prevention.
One idea is that most of the fires in exterior insulation construction projects are caused by construction site fires, while there are few fire cases in exterior insulation construction projects in use. The fire safety of exterior insulation can be ensured by dealing with hidden fire hazards in construction stage.
In this regard, the expert believes that, in terms of importance and long-term, dealing with hidden fire hazards in the process of building use is the core of fire safety. He pointed out that most of the fires in the existing external thermal insulation projects occurred in the construction process, and there were relatively few fire cases in the application process of external thermal insulation buildings. The reason is that the organic thermal insulation board is bare in the construction process, without any protective layer, the construction process often encounters cross-fire operation, which is prone to fire. However, few people realize that the external thermal insulation system with poor fire resistance can promote the fire when the fire breaks out in the construction in use.
The expert emphasized that it is necessary to pay more attention to and deal with the fire at the construction site, but dealing with the hidden fire hazards in the process of building application is the core of fire safety. This is mainly based on the following two factors: first, in the process of construction, when a fire breaks out, fewer people are touched, fewer flammable and explosive materials are in the building, more escape channels and less difficulty in rescue. On the contrary, fires occur in the process of building use. Once a fire breaks out, people and industry safety and fire rescue will face major testing. Second, the construction period of external thermal insulation is short, usually not more than 3 months, and the service life of buildings is usually more than 50 years. Therefore, in terms of the importance of personnel and industrial safety and the long-term use of buildings, it is particularly important to reduce fire damage in the process of building application.
3. Simple fire prevention structure is stipulated, and no fire prevention classification is carried out.
Some people think that when the organic thermal insulation data system is only used over 24 meters, a fire-proof isolation belt is added to each or two layers, and the fire-proof classification of the external thermal insulation system is not carried out.
In this regard, the expert believes that the concept is not systematic and scientific. Above all, if only for the thin plastering system of polyphenyl board, although the requirements of European and American standards are greatly relaxed, but at least it is "better than no" and can be implemented in operation. But it would be too unsystematic and unscientific to write into authoritative norms. Because there is no grading standard, experimental method and determination target, it is impossible to comment on the fire protection performance of all kinds of thermal insulation systems systematically. In this way, it is not only impossible to make useful and systematic comment on the fire protection performance of all kinds of external thermal insulation systems already included in the regulations, but also impossible to provide new research and development of external thermal insulation systems in the future. Discuss the direction and make reasonable, useful and systematic comments.
Together, the expert pointed out that only the fire isolation belt can not deal with all the problems of external thermal insulation and fire prevention. Among the three periods of primary fire attack, the most frequent one is the construction stage. When a fire breaks out in this stage, it usually occurs before the construction of the surface layer. Therefore, the flame may directly attack the surface of the organic thermal insulation data through the fire-proof isolation zone, which can also form a fire extension. Secondly, the material difference between the fireproof isolation zone and the organic thermal insulation material increases the probability of surface cracks and brings new hidden dangers. The thoroughly mature fireproof isolation zone skills need to be confirmed through many experimental studies.
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