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建筑保温材料的阻燃和防火的区别,你知道吗?
来源:/ 日期:2018-08-07 发布人:admin

对于材料本身,人们一直试图提高材料的阻燃性能,进而减少火灾风险的可能性。材料的阻燃是指可燃物体通过特殊方法处理后,物体本身具有防止、减缓或终止燃烧的性能。物体的防火则是通过某种方法,使可燃物体在受到火焰侵袭时不会快速升温而遭到破坏。
For the material itself, people have been trying to improve the flame retardancy of materials, thereby reducing the possibility of fire risk. Flame retardancy of materials refers to the property of preventing, slowing down or stopping the combustion of combustible materials after being treated by special methods. The object of fire prevention is through some way, so that flammable objects will not be damaged rapidly when heated by fire.
可见,阻燃的对象是材料本身。而防火的对象是其他需要被保护的物体,如通过在钢材表面涂覆一层难燃涂层从而实现钢材的防火。由此可见,阻燃和防火两者并不是一回事。
It can be seen that the object of flame retardant is the material itself. The object of fire protection is other objects that need to be protected, such as by coating the steel surface with a layer of flame retardant coating to achieve steel fire protection. This shows that flame retardant and fire prevention are not the same thing.

阻燃剂在燃烧过程通过发挥下列作用而使物体达到阻燃:(1)捕捉自由基;(2)吸收热量;(3)覆盖作用;(4)稀释作用;(5)脱水碳化作用。
Flame retardant in the process of burning the following effect to make the object to achieve flame retardancy: (1) capture free radicals; (2) absorption of heat; (3) coverage; (4) dilution; (5) dehydrating carbonization.
溴系阻燃剂是目前世界上产量最大的阻燃剂之一,主要作用机理是在火灾初期较低温度下迅速分解,然后快速捕捉燃烧反应中的自由基H·和HO·,因而具有较高的阻燃效率。
Brominated flame retardants are one of the largest flame retardants in the world at present. The main mechanism is to decompose rapidly at lower temperatures in the early stage of fire and quickly capture the free radicals H and HO in the combustion reaction, thus having high flame retardancy efficiency。

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聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料一般添加溴类阻燃剂,这类阻燃剂分解温度在200度左右,泡沫板在最初的火源作用下,由于阻燃剂的作用可能无法燃烧(也有可能燃烧),但是熔化生成的油状物后,其中的阻燃剂已经消耗殆尽,不具有阻燃性能。
Polystyrene foamed plastics generally add brominated flame retardants. The decomposition temperature of this kind of flame retardant is about 200 degrees. The foam plate can not burn (and may burn) due to the effect of the flame retardant under the initial fire source, but after melting the oil, the combustible agent has been exhausted and does not have the flame retardancy. .
聚苯乙烯的燃烧热为40.18kJ/g,属于燃烧热比较高的物质,火焰温度高达2210度,温度和热量不断把火焰周围的聚苯乙烯加工成燃料,随着燃烧范围的不断扩大,很多杂物都有可能成为灯芯。火势越来越大,逐步演变成大火。
The combustion heat of polystyrene is 40.18kJ/g, which belongs to high combustion heat, with a flame temperature of up to 2210 degrees. The temperature and heat continuously process polystyrene around the flame. With the continuous expansion of the combustion range, many sundries may become the wick. The fire grew more and more, and gradually turned into a fire.
热固性改性EPS是采用防火物质包裹单颗EPS颗粒,并成型为块状板材。热固性改性EPS在受到外部火源攻击后,首先EPS颗粒也会熔化甚至燃烧,但是每个颗粒熔化在自己的颗粒空间里,体积约是原来的1/50,被包裹它的防火物质吸收,不会形成大量的油状物,也就无法引起火焰的传播。更重要的是,产生的蜂窝状的无机物不但可以阻止火焰和热量传播,还阻止空气和相邻泡沫的接触,外部有限火源影响到一定的深度后,由于没有足够的温度和氧气,燃烧无法进一步进行下去。
Thermosetting modified EPS is a single EPS particle coated with fireproof material and molded into lump sheet. The thermosetting modified EPS, after being attacked by the external fire source, first melts and even burns the EPS particles, but each particle melts in its own particle space, the volume is about the original 1/50, is absorbed by its fireproof material, and does not form a large amount of oil, and it can not cause the propagation of the flame. More importantly, the generated honeycomb inorganic substances not only prevent flame and heat transmission, but also prevent contact between air and adjacent foam. After the external finite fire source affects a certain depth, the combustion can not go further due to the lack of sufficient temperature and oxygen.
综上所述,热固性EPS在有限外部火源的作用下,产生一定厚度的蜂窝状无机物,隔绝了空气和外部火源,从而结束了燃烧反应。这是一个典型的从微观结构层面上的防火构造。
To sum up, the thermosetting EPS produces a certain thickness of honeycomb like inorganic material under the action of the limited external fire source, isolating the air and the external fire source, thus ending the combustion reaction. This is a typical fire protection structure from the microscopic level.
从微观上看,绝大多数可燃物质的燃烧并不是物质本身在燃烧,而是物质受热分解出的气体或液体的蒸汽在气相中的燃烧。如果物体具有防火功能,例如复合板,热源(例如电焊火花或焊渣)的热量持续时间有限,不能快速的透过无机物加热可燃物达到分解的温度,也就不能引起燃烧。
On the microcosmic point of view, the burning of most of the combustible material is not the combustion of the substance itself, but the combustion of the vapour in the gas or the liquid that is decomposed by the heat of the matter. If an object has a fireproof function, such as a composite plate, a heat source (such as a welding spark or slag) has a limited duration of heat, it can't quickly heat the flammable material through the inorganic material to reach the decomposition temperature, and it can not cause the combustion.
从氧化剂的角度看,复合板无机材料层有效地隔绝了空气。例如1200mm*600mm*30mm的复合保温板,覆盖面积达1.44平方米,占表面积的93%,包裹后的有机保温板面几乎不跟空气直接接触,在电焊等小火源的作用下,燃烧几乎不可进行。
From the perspective of oxidants, the inorganic material layer of the composite board effectively cuts off the air. For example, the composite insulation board of 1200mm*600mm*30mm, covering an area of 1.44 square meters, accounts for 93% of the surface area, and the organic heat insulation board after the package almost does not contact with the air, and the combustion is almost impossible under the effect of welding and other small fire sources.
作为一种特殊的复合板,保温装饰一体化系统占外墙保温系统的5%,已具有十几年的工程应用经验,从百度的搜索结果来看,几乎没有发生火灾的报道。说明复合板的防火构造是有效的。这是一个典型的中观防火构造的成功案例。
As a special composite plate, the heat preservation and decoration integrated system accounts for 5% of the external wall thermal insulation system. It has more than ten years of experience in engineering application. From the search results of Baidu, there are almost no reports of fire. It shows that the fireproof structure of the composite plate is effective. This is a successful example of a typical meso fire protection structure.
中华人民共和国新的《建筑防火设计规范》中,要求当使用B1级保温材料时首层抹灰厚度达到15mm,其它层要求不低于5mm,并且要求每层做交圈的防火隔离带。通过抹灰层、无机的防火隔离带以及无机的基层墙体,360度全面覆盖了有机保温板表面,隔绝了空气和保温板的接触,让燃烧不能继续。当然在外部火源相对比较大时,需要覆盖层有足够的稳定性才能持续一定时间有有效,因此对抹灰层有厚度的要求。这正是宏观上的防火构造。
In the new design code for building fire protection in People's Republic of China, the first layer plastering thickness of the B1 level insulation material is 15mm, the other layers are not less than 5mm, and each layer is required to make a ring of fire isolation belt. Through the plastering layer, the inorganic fireproof isolation belt and the inorganic base wall, the 360 degree covers the surface of the organic heat insulation board, isolating the contact between the air and the insulation board so that the combustion can not be continued. Of course, when the external fire source is relatively large, it is necessary to have enough stability for the cover layer to be effective for a certain time, so the thickness of the plastering layer is required. This is the macro fire protection structure.

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